Mathematicians, Scientists, Philosophers, Poets and more...
The History of Global Persian Citizens
Contributions from the people of the ancient Persian Empire span every aspect of the global civilization we enjoy today.
The ancient Persians, represent an ethnicity which shares a common cultural system and the Persian language, Farsi which is still spoken in various dialects in more than 18 other countries, comprising 300 million people.
Throughout history the Persian Culture and people have been well-recognized for their progressive thinking giving way to their massive global influence on culture, art, politics, science, medicine and economics.
Persian architectural masterpieces include the construction of the very first stadium, the Apadana in Persepolis in the 400s BC. The prolific Persian philosophers and poets are still avidly studied today. The works of Rumi, the Persian poet and Sufi master born in 1207, are translated in many languages, have sold millions of copies in recent years making him the most popular poet in the US.
Moreover, Persians were the first people in history to give men and women equal rights, racial equality, religious freedom, and abolish slavery. Cyrus the Great, the first Monarch of ancient Persia, recorded this first bill of rights on a baked-clay cylinder known today as the Cyrus Cylinder. Centuries later these prophetic words would serve as a source of inspiration in creating the Bill of Rights amendments to the Constitution of the United States and more recently, would be reflected in Shirin Ebadi being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003 for her efforts in promoting human rights.
The history of these gifted scholars can be traced back to the earliest days of the ancient Persian empire in the 6th century. Embracing a broad field of study, they are often historically referred to as Polymaths. As such, though each is most recognized for a defining achievement, their knowledge spans many subjects including mathematics, astronomy, medicine, art and philosophy.
A Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet in the 11th and 12th centuries notable for his contributions to geometry and designing Jalali calendar and invented a tradition of poetry, quatrains (rubāʿiyāt رباعیات), widely translated by Edward FitzGerald.
A Persian physician, polymath, alchemist, and philosopher in the 9th and 10th centuries. An important figure in medicine with numerous discoveries in compounds and chemicals including alcohol and sulfuric acid.
Abu Nasr Farabi-Bridging Cultures Through Philosophy
Abu Nasr al-Farabi (Farabi)
Known as “the second master” of philosophy, Abū Naṣr al-Fārābī was one of the leader thinkers of medieval Islam and the greatest philosopher after Aristotle. More than a hundred of his discourses that were devoted to logic, metaphysics, ethics, political and social philosophy, music and medicine have survived to our time.
He was the first to systematize music on a mathematical basis and demonstrated it as a direction of science. His “Kitâb al-musiqâ al-kabîr” or Great Book of Music is the most important medieval musical book in Islamic lands. According to some scientists of those times, it was Farabi’s works on natural science that led Europe to the beginning of the renaissance. His work thereby became a symbol of unity and mutual understanding between the eastern and western cultures.
He was not only a translator, but also developed his philosophical doctrines in Arabic; consequently, Greece philosophy got an Arabic equivalent. Scholars believe that Arabic philosophical vocabulary reached its peak in Farabi’s papers. Farabi’s humanist worldview is a coherent system covering the problems of science, religion, sociology, logic, ethics, and aesthetics.
In the center of the concept of virtuous society is a theme of man, his intellectual and moral perfection, the desire for personal and social happiness, and the search for a better future. He systematized social and political views and united them in a common work, called the “Book of the Opinions of the Inhabitants of the Virtuous City”. In this book, he articulated that if the government of a city-state is educated and fair, all the residents would be happy; therefore, people, particularly leaders, must constantly be in the spiritual search and strive for moral self-improvement.
Farabi compares the city to a body where each part of it perfectly performs its assigned function, working together harmoniously to achieve common goals. To this date, his moral characteristics necessary for statesmen, the love of truth, nobility, and greatness of character, has not lost its value and meaning.
Farabi, as a philosopher of civilizations, refers to all man-kind, irrespective of religious affiliation or national origin, urging them to unite efforts for the sake of a better life.
A Persian polymath in the 10th century, the father of early modern medicine with works and contributions in astronomy, alchemy, geography, psychology, logic, math and poetry. His book, The Canon of Medicine, was a standard medical text at many universities.
Abu Ali Sina (Avicenna)-Author of The Canon of Medicine.
Abu Ali Sina (Avicenna)
Ibu-e-Sina, or Avicenna as he is known in Europe, was the most famous in a series of Muslim physician–philosophers who preserved Greco-Roman knowledge and wisdom during the Dark Ages which followed the collapse of the Roman Empire. Having enriched it with their own observations and interpretations, they then made it available again five centuries later to Western Civilization at the coming of the Renaissance.
Contribution by Mahta Barekatain
Abu Ali Sina, also known as Avicenna is a Persian philosopher who belonged to the Islamic Golden Age. He was born in around 980 in what is now known as Uzbakistan. He wrote about everything from physics and music to theology and astronomy to logic and medicine. In 1025, Avicenna completed his most famous work, Al Qanun fel Teb on the Canon of Medicine. His book was divided into five volumes with each of the book dealing with a separate subject. While the first and the second book discussed physiology, pathology, and hygiene, the third and fourth dealt with the methods of treating diseases as diverse as depression, meningitis, and smallpox. There are even detailed chapters on more common problems like headache and flu. The fifth book described the composition and preparation of remedies in detail.
Avicenna also wrote The Book of Healing, in which he discusses the mind and its existence. He writes about the mind-body relationship, sensation, perception, etc. He also writes that the strong negative emotions can have negative effects on the body’s biological functions and can even lead to death in severe cases. Maybe that is why he often used psychological methods to treat his patients.
In 1037, Avicenna died in Hamadan after freeing his slaves and bestowing his goods on the poor. He always said that: “I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length”. Today, he has been recognized by both East and West as one of the great figures in intellectual history.
A scholar in 7th and 8th century with numerous works in alchemy, numerology, astrology, and medicine in Arabic, and widely described as the father/ founder of early chemistry who invented the basis of many processes and equipment used by current chemists.
A Persian physician, astronomer, geographer, and photo-science fiction writer of Arab descent in the 13th century well known for his famous cosmography titled “The Wonders of Creation” and his geographical dictionary “Monument of Places and History of God’s Bondsmen”.
An Iranian philosopher, theologian, and the master of the Illuminations school of philosophy who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century and is considered the most influential philosopher in the Muslim world.
Mulla Sadra-Peripatetic, Illuminationist and Gnostic Philosophy
Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi (Mulla Sadra)
“A man in eternal exile” Their thirst had quenched them, there was no sip of water to drink and no piece of bread to eat. His children were sick and weak and his wife, Sarah, who was pregnant with her last child, was unconscious in howdah2. Sheikh heard an inner voice, like a thunderstorm, he was screaming: “Was not it better to surrender to the willingness of tyrants? And he replied: “Shame on me if I submit to humiliation!”
Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi (Mulla Sadra) is perhaps the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years. The author of over forty works, he was the culminating figure of the major revival of philosophy in Iran in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Devoting himself almost exclusively to metaphysics, he constructed a critical philosophy which brought together Peripatetic, Illuminationist and gnostic philosophy along with Shi’ite theology within the compass of what he termed a ‘metaphilosophy’, the source of which lay in the Islamic revelation and the mystical experience of reality as existence.
Mulla Sadra’s metaphilosophy was based on existence as the sole constituent of reality, and rejected any role for quiddities or essences in the external world. Existence was for him at once a single unity and an internally articulated dynamic process, the unique source of both unity and diversity. From this fundamental starting point, Mulla Sadra was able to find original solutions to many of the logical, metaphysical and theological difficulties which he had inherited from his predecessors. His major philosophical work is the Asfar (The Four Journeys), which runs to nine volumes in the present printed edition and is a complete presentation of his philosophical ideas.
1. The primacy of existence
Sadr al-Din Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Yahya al-Qawami al-Shirazi, known variously as Mulla Sadra, Sadr al-Muta’allihin, or simply Akhund, was born in Shiraz in central Iran in ah 979-80/ad 1571-2. He studied in Isfahan with, among others, Mir Damad and Shaykh Baha’ al-Din al-‘Amili, Shaykh-e Baha’i, before retiring for a number of years of spiritual solitude and discipline in the village of Kahak, near Qum. Here he completed the first part of his major work, the Asfar (The Four Journeys). He was then invited by Allah-wirdi Khan, the governor of Fars province, to return to Shiraz, where he taught for the remainder of his life. He died in Basra in ah 1050/ad 1640 while on his seventh pilgrimage on foot to Mecca.
Safavid Iran witnessed a noteworthy revival of philosophical learning, and Mulla Sadra was this revival’s most important figure. The Peripatetic (mashsha’i) philosophy of Ibn Sina had been elaborated and invigorated at the beginning of the Mongol period by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and there existed a number of important contributors to this school in the century before Mulla Sadra. Illuminationist (ishraqi) philosophy, originated by Shihab al-Din al-Suhrawardi, had also been a major current (see Illuminationist philosophy). The speculative mysticism of the Sufism of Ibn al-‘Arabi had also taken firm root in the period leading up to the tenth century ah (sixteenth century ad), while theology (kalam), particularly Shi’ite theology, had increasingly come to be expressed in philosophical terminology, a process which was initiated in large part by al-Tusi (see Mystical philosophy in Islam; Islamic theology). Several philosophers had
combined various strands from this philosophical heritage in their writings, but it was Mulla Sadra who achieved a true fusion of all four, forming what he called ‘metaphilosophy’ (al-hikma al-muta’aliya), a term he incorporated into the title of his magnum opus, al-Hikma al-muta’aliya fi’l-asfar al-‘aqliyya al-arba’a (The Transcendent Wisdom Concerning the Four Intellectual Journeys), known simply as the Asfar.
Mulla Sadra made the primacy of existence (asalat al-wujud) the cornerstone of his philosophy. Aristotle (§§11-12) had pointed out that existence was the most universal of predicates and therefore could not be included as one of the categories, and al-Farabi added to this that it was possible to know an essence without first knowing whether it existed or not, existence thus being neither a constitutive element of an essence nor a necessary attribute, and that therefore it must be an accident. But it was Ibn Sina who later became the source for the controversy as to how the accidentality of existence was to be conceived. He had held that in the existence-quiddity (wujud-mahiyya) or existence-essence relationship, existence was an accident of quiddity. Ibn Rushd had criticized this view as entailing a regress, for if the existence of a thing depended on the addition of an accident to it, then the same principle would have to apply to existence itself. This was merely an argument against the existence-quiddity dichotomy, but al-Suhrawardi had added to this another argument, asserting that if existence were an attribute of quiddity, quiddity itself would have to exist before attracting this attribute in order to be thus qualified. From this, al-Suhrawardi deduced the more radical conclusion that existence is merely a mental concept with no corresponding reality, and that it is quiddity which constitutes reality.
It was this view, that of the primacy of quiddity (asalat al-mahiyya), which held sway in philosophical writing in Iran up to Mulla Sadra’s time. Indeed, Mir Damad, Mulla Sadra’s teacher, held this view. However, Mulla Sadra himself took the opposite view, that it is existence that constitutes reality and that it is quiddities which are the mental constructs. By taking the position of the primacy of existence, Mulla Sadra was able to answer the objections of Ibn Rushd and the Illuminationists by pointing out that existence is accidental to quiddity in the mind in so far as it is not a part of its essence. When it is a case of attributing existentiality to existence, however, what is being discussed is an essential attribute; and so at this point the regress stopped, for the source of an essential attribute is the essence itself.
2. The systematic ambiguity of existence
A concomitant of Mulla Sadra’s theory that reality and existence are identical is that existence is one but graded in intensity; to this he gave the name tashkik al-wujud, which has been usefully translated as the ‘systematic ambiguity’ of existence. Al-Suhrawardi, in contrast to the peripatetics, had asserted that quiddities were capable of a range of intensities; for example, when a colour, such as blue, intensifies it is not a new species of ‘blueness’ which replaces the old one, but is rather the same ‘blue’ intensified. Mulla Sadra adopted this theory but replaced quiddity with existence, which was for him the only reality. This enabled him to say that it is the same existence which occurs in all things, but that existential instances differ in terms of ‘priority and posteriority, perfection and imperfection, strength and weakness’ (making reality similar to al-Suhrawardi’s Light). He was thus able to explain that it was existence and existence alone which had the property of combining ‘unity in multiplicity, and multiplicity in unity’.
Reality is therefore pure existence, but an existence which manifests itself in different modes, and it is these modes which present themselves in the mind as quiddities. Even the term ‘in the mind’, however, is merely an expression denoting a particular mode of being, that of mental existence (al-wujud al-dhihni), albeit an extremely attenuated mode. Everything is thus comprehended by existence, even ‘nothingness’, which must on being conceived assume the most meagre portion of existence in order to become a mental existent. When reality (or rather a mode of existence) presents itself to the mind, the mind abstracts a quiddity from it – being unable, except in exceptional circumstances, to grasp existence intuitively – and in the mind the quiddity becomes, as it were, the reality and existence the accident. However, this ‘existence’ which the mind predicates of the quiddity is itself merely a notion or concept, one of the secondary intellects. It is this which is the most universal and most self-evident concept to which the Aristotelians referred, and which al-Suhrawardi regarded as univocal. But in reality there are not two ‘things’, existence and quiddity, only existence – not the concept, but the reality – and so ‘existence’ cannot be regarded as a real attribute of quiddity; for if this were possible quiddity would have to be regarded as already existent, as al-Suhrawardi had objected.
3. Substantial motion
Another of the key properties of existence for Mulla Sadra is its transubstantiality, effected through what he termed motion in substance (al-haraka fi’l-jawhar) or substantial motion (al-haraka al-jawhariyya). The peripatetics had held that substance only changes suddenly, from one substance to another or from one instant to another, in generation and corruption (and therefore only in the sublunar world), and that gradual motion is confined to the accidents (quantity, quality, place). They also held that the continuity of movement is something only in the mind, which strings together a potentially infinite series of infinitesimal changes – rather in the fashion of a film – to produce the illusion of movement, although time as an extension is a true part of our experience. What gives rise to movement is an unchanging substrate, part of the essence of which is that it is at an indefinite point in space at some instant in time; in other words, movement is potential in it and is that through which it becomes actual. Mulla Sadra completely rejected this, on the grounds that the reality of this substance, its being, must itself be in motion, for the net result of the peripatetic view is merely a static conglomeration of spatio-temporal events. The movement from potentiality to actuality of a thing is in fact the abstract notion in the mind, while material being itself is in a constant state of flux perpetually undergoing substantial change. Moreover, this substantial change is a property not only of sublunary elemental beings (those composed of earth, water, air and fire) but of celestial beings as well. Mulla Sadra likened the difference between these two understandings of movement to the difference between the abstracted, derivative notion of existence and the existence which is reality itself.
Existence in Mulla Sadra’s philosophical system, as has been seen, is characterized by systematic ambiguity (tashkik), being given its systematic character by substantial motion, which is always in one direction towards perfection. In other words, existence can be conceived of as a continual unfolding of existence, which is thus a single whole with a constantly evolving internal dynamic. What gives things their identities are the imagined essences which we abstract from the modes of existence, while the reality is ever-changing; it is only when crucial points are reached that we perceive this change and new essences are formed in our minds, although change has been continually going on. Time is the measure of this process of renewal, and is not an independent entity such that events take place within it, but rather is a dimension exactly like the three spatial dimensions: the physical world is a spatio-temporal continuum.
All of this permits Mulla Sadra to give an original solution to the problem which has continually pitted philosophers against theologians in Islam, that of the eternity of the world. In his system, the world is eternal as a continual process of the unfolding of existence, but since existence is in a constant state of flux due to its continuous substantial change, every new manifestation of existence in the world emerges in time. The world – that is, every spatio-temporal event from the highest heaven downwards – is thus temporally originated, although as a whole the world is also eternal in the sense that it has no beginning or end, since time is not something existing independently within which the world in turn exists (see Eternity).
Mulla Sadra’s radical ontology also enabled him to offer original contributions to epistemology, combining aspects of Ibn Sina’s theory of knowledge (in which the Active Intellect, while remaining utterly transcendent, actualizes the human mind by instilling it with intellectual forms in accordance with its state of preparation to receive these forms) with the theory of self-knowledge through knowledge by presence developed by al-Suhrawardi. Mulla Sadra’s epistemology is based on the identity of the intellect and the intelligible, and on the identity of knowledge and existence. His theory of substantial motion, in which existence is a dynamic process constantly moving towards greater intensity and perfection, had allowed him to explain that new forms, or modes, of existence do not replace prior forms but on the contrary subsume them. Knowledge, being identical with existence, replicates this process, and by acquiring successive intelligible forms – which are in reality modes of being and not essential forms, and are thus successive intensifications of existence – gradually moves the human intellect towards identity with the Active Intellect. The intellect thus becomes identified with the intelligibles which inform it.
Furthermore, for Mulla Sadra actual intelligibles are self-intelligent and self-intellected, since an actual intelligible cannot be deemed to have ceased to be intelligible once it is considered outside its relation to intellect. As the human intellect acquires more intelligibles, it gradually moves upwards in terms of the intensification and perfection of existence, losing its dependence on quiddities, until it becomes one with the Active Intellect and enters the realm of pure existence. Humans can, of course, normally only attain at best a partial identification with the Active Intellect as long as they remain with their physical bodies; only in the case of prophets can there be complete identification, allowing them to have direct access to knowledge for themselves without the need for instruction. Indeed, only very few human minds attain identification with the Active Intellect even after death.
Even this brief account of Mulla Sadra’s main doctrines will have given some idea of the role that is played in his philosophy by the experience of the reality which it describes. Indeed he conceived of hikma (wisdom) as ‘coming to know the essence of beings as they really are’ or as ‘a man’s becoming an intellectual world corresponding to the objective world’. Philosophy and mysticism, hikma and Sufism, are for him two aspects of the same thing. To engage in philosophy without experiencing the truth of its content confines the philosopher to a world of essences and concepts, while mystical experience without the intellectual discipline of philosophy can lead only to an ineffable state of ecstasy. When the two go hand in hand, the mystical experience of reality becomes the intellectual content of philosophy.
The four journeys, the major sections into which the Asfar is divided, parallel a fourfold division of the Sufi journey. The first, the journey of creation or the creature (khalq) to the Truth (al-haqq), is the most philosophical; here Mulla Sadra lays out the basis of his ontology, and mirrors the stage in the Sufi’s path where he seeks to control his lower nafs under the supervision of his shaykh. In the second journey, in the Truth with the Truth, the stage at which the Sufi begins to attract the divine manifestations, Mulla Sadra deals with the simple substances, the intelligences, the souls and their bodies, including therefore his discussion of the natural sciences. In the third journey, from the Truth to creation with the Truth, the Sufi experiences annihilation in the Godhead, and Mulla Sadra deals with theodicy; the fourth stage, the journey with the Truth in creation, where he gives a full and systematic account of the development of the human soul, its origin, becoming and end, is where the Sufi experiences persistence in annihilation, absorbed in the beauty of oneness and the manifestations of multiplicity.
Mulla Sadra had described his blinding spiritual realization of the primacy of existence as a kind of ‘conversion’: In the earlier days I used to be a passionate defender of the thesis that the quiddities are the primary constituents of reality and existence is conceptual, until my Lord gave me spiritual guidance and let me see His demonstration. All of a sudden my spiritual eyes were opened and I saw with utmost clarity that the truth was just the contrary of what the philosophers in general had held…. As a result, [I now hold that] the existences (wujudat) are primary realities, while the quiddities are the ‘permanent archetypes’ (a’yan thabita) that have never smelt the fragrance of existence. (Asfar, vol. 1, introduction)
Therefore, it is not surprising that Mulla Sadra is greatly indebted to Ibn al-‘Arabi in many aspects of his philosophy. Ibn Sina provides the ground on which his metaphilosophy is constructed and is, as it were, the lens through which he views Peripatetic philosophy. However, his work is also full of citations from the Presocratics (particularly Pythagoras), Plato, Aristotle, the Neoplatonists (see Neoplatonism in Islamic philosophy) and the Stoics (taken naturally from Arabic sources), and he also refers to the works of al-Farabi, and Abu’l Hasan al-‘Amiri, who had prefigured Mulla Sadra’s theory of the unity of intellect and intelligible. This philosophical heritage is then given shape through the illuminationism of al-Suhrawardi, whose universe of static grades of light he transformed into a dynamic unity by substituting the primacy of existence for the latter’s primacy of quiddity. It is in this shaping that the influence of Ibn al-‘Arabi, whom Mulla Sadra quotes and comments on in hundreds of instances, can be most keenly felt. Not only is that apparent in Mulla Sadra’s total dismissal of any role for quiddity in the nature of reality, but in the importance which both he and Ibn al-‘Arabi gave to the imaginal world (‘alam al-mithal, ‘alam al-khayal).
In Ibn Sina’s psychology, the imaginal faculty (al-quwwa al-khayaliyya) is the site for the manipulation of images abstracted from material objects and retained in the sensus communis. The imaginal world had first been formally proposed by al-Suhrawardi as an intermediate realm between that of material bodies and that of intellectual entities, which is independent of matter and thus survives the body after death. Ibn al-‘Arabi had emphasized the creative aspects of this power to originate by mere volition imaginal forms which are every bit as real as, if not more real than, perceptibles but which subsist in no place. For Mulla Sadra, this world is a level of immaterial existence with which it is possible for the human soul (and indeed certain higher forms of the animal soul) to be in contact, although not all the images formed by the human soul are necessarily veridical and therefore part of the imaginal world. For Mulla Sadra, as also for Ibn al-‘Arabi, the imaginal world is the key to understanding the nature of bodily resurrection and the afterlife, which exists as an immaterial world which is nevertheless real (perhaps one might say more real than the physical world), in which the body survives as an imaginal form after death.
Philosophy has always had a tense relationship with theology in Islam, especially with the latter’s discourse of faith (iman) and orthodoxy. In consequence, philosophy has often been seen, usually by non-philosophers, as a school with its own doctrines. This is despite the assertions of philosophers themselves that what they were engaged in was a practice without end (for, as Ibn Sina had declared that what is known to humankind is limited and could only possibly be fulfilled when the association of the soul with the body is severed through death), part of the discipline of which consisted in avoiding taqlid, an uncritical adherence to sects (see Islam, concept of philosophy in). It is the notable feature of Mulla Sadra’s methodology that he constantly sought to transcend the particularities of any system – Platonic, Aristotelian, Neoplatonic, mystical or theological – by striving to create through his metaphilosophy an instrument with which the soundness of all philosophical arguments might be tested. It is a measure of his success that he has remained to the present day the most influential of the ‘modern’ philosophers in the Islamic world.
Contribution by Yasaman Dadruie Reference list:
Nader Ebrahimi (2012) A man in Eternal Exile (Mardi dar Tab’eid –e Abadi) Mulla Sadra [Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi] (c.1628) al-Hikma al-muta’aliya fi-‘l-asfar al-‘aqliyya al-arba’a (The Transcendent Wisdom Concerning the Four Intellectual Journeys), ed. R. Lutfi et al., Tehran and Qum: Shirkat Dar al-Ma’arif al-Islamiyyah, 1958-69?, 9 vols; vol. 1, 2nd printing, with introduction by M.R. al-Muzaffar, Qum: Shirkat Dar al-Ma’arif al-Islamiyyah, 1967. (This is Mulla Sadra’s major work, often known simply as Asfar (The Four Journeys). The full edition includes partial glosses by ‘Ali al-Nuri, Hadi al-Sabzawari, ‘Ali al-Mudarras al-Zanuzi, Isma’il al-Khwaju’i al-Isfahani, Muhammad al-Zanjani and Muhammad Husayn al-Tabataba’i.) Mulla Sadra [Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi] (c.1628) Kitab al-masha’ir (The Book of Metaphysical Penetrations), ed., trans. and intro. by H. Corbin, Le livre des pénétrations métaphysiques, Paris: Départment d’Iranologie de l’Institut Franco-Iranien de Recherche, and Tehran: Librairie d’Amerique et d’Orient Adrien-Maisonneuve, Bibliothèque Iranienne vol. 10, 1964; French portion re-edited Lagrasse: Verdier, 1988; ed. and trans. P. Morewedge, The Metaphysics of Mulla Sadra, New York: Society for the Study of Islamic Philosophy and Science, 1992. (Corbin is a synopsis of Mulla Sadra’s ontology, with a useful bibliography of Mulla Sadra’s writings and introduction by Corbin. Morewedge provides a parallel Arabic-English edition; the translation is based on Corbin’s edition of the text.) Mulla Sadra [Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi] (c.1628) al-Hikma al-‘arshiyya (The Wisdom of the Throne), ed. with Persian paraphrase by G.R. Ahani, Isfahan, 1962; trans. and intro. J.W. Morris, The Wisdom of the Throne: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mulla Sadra, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982. (A useful summary of Mulla Sadra’s views on theology and eschatology; the introduction to the English translation provides an informative general introduction to Mulla Sadra work.) Izutsu Toshihiko (1971) The Concept and Reality of Existence, Studies in the Humanities and Social Relations 13, Tokyo: Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies. (Although concerned primarily with the philosophical ideas of Mulla Sadra’s principal nineteenth century follower, Mulla Hadi al-Sabzawari, this work contains an extremely valuable exposition of the history of the existence-essence controversy in metaphysics, and deals with Mulla Sadra’s views in many places.) Nasr, S.H. (1978) Sadr al-Din Shirazi and His Transcendent Theosophy: Background, Life and Works, Tehran: Imperial Academy of Philosophy. (The first part of a planned, but so far uncompleted, two-volume work, the second volume of which is intended to deal with Mulla Sadra’s philosophical ideas; contains the best bibliography of Mulla Sadra’s works.) Nasr, S.H. (1996) ‘Mulla Sadra: His Teachings’, in S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman (eds) History of Islamic Philosophy, London: Routledge, 643-52. (Short summary of Mulla Sadra’s thought.) Rahman, F. (1975) The Philosophy of Mulla Sadr (Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi), Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. (To date, the only full-scale study of Mulla Sadra’s philosophy in English.) Ziai, H. (1996) ‘Mulla Sadra: His Life and Works’, in S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman (eds) History of Islamic Philosophy, London: Routledge, 635-42. (Biographical essay discussing Mulla Sadra’s influence and works.)
A major Persian poet and prose writer in the 13th century. He was known as “Master of Speech” among Persian scholars and recognized for the depth of his social and moral thoughts. His poem Bani Adamis woven into a Persian rug displayed on a wall in the United Nations building in New York.
Saadi Shirazi-Influencing The Leadership of France
Saadi’s deep understanding of the world transcends time and space. His path influenced humans of all time in places such as France, Spain, Germany, Russia, and England.
Lazare Carnot, known as the organizer of victory in French revolutionary wars who rose to overcome brutality, was inspired by Saadi’s despise for brutality of sovereigns. Lazare maintained Saadi’s name in his coming generations including his son, Sadi Carnot and Marie Francois Sadi Carnot who became French statesman and the 5th president of the third Republic.
Contribution by Dr. Rouzbeh Yassini Reference list: