Born in Khwarazm, Abu Reyhan Birouni (973 – 1048, A.D.) is renowned as one of the great scientific minds in all history. He also earned fame as a physicist, anthropologist, comparative sociologist, astronomer and chemist, and historian. His studies informed his criticism of alchemy and astrology.
Birouni’s travels throughout India inspired his writing of Tarikh Al-Hind (Chronicles of India). In all, Birouni’s works number 146, including books on astronomy, time measurement, geography, mathematics, medicine, and philosophy. Of these, only 22 have survived.